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台灣新電影的海洋想像(節錄)

文:陳智廷,原文將刊於本屆《獨報》

提及台灣新電影,最常說的是1982至1983年發軔的新電影受七十年代鄉土文學運動的影響,尤其是黃春明的小說。三段式電影《兒子的大玩偶》(1983)、《看海的日子》(1983)、《我愛瑪莉》(柯一正,1984),都是改編自黃春明的短篇鄉土小說。(當然,盧非易指出新電影改編現代文學的比例高於鄉土文學。)葉月瑜認為新電影的本土主義實踐複數化台灣人的身份,將「他者」如底層小人物、外省人、原住民納入在地本土。正如葉所說的「本土主義不是排他主義,本土主義也不是法西斯民族主義」,我希望打開強調在地、本土、鄉土不經意的封閉文化想像(Subramani),轉向「海洋台灣」面朝大海春暖花開的連結潛能。於是,回顧台灣電影新浪潮,我想從「新浪潮」的字面意義出發,探索新電影初始的海洋想像,如何既阻隔又連結海峽兩岸(大陸與島嶼)、港台(島嶼與島嶼)、台灣本島與澎湖金門離島(島國內的中心與邊緣),置身中-日-美三角關係,延伸至東南亞、太平洋,乃至在美學上呼應歐洲電影現代主義,游移過去與現在,穿梭記憶、夢與真實,擺渡死亡與生活,象徵危險與希望,隨着潮起又潮落,搬演人情冷暖、緣起緣滅與生命聚散。

《小畢的故事》(1983)作為眷村男孩畢楚嘉的成長故事,與台北淡水的海景緊密相依。片頭聽見海潮聲,漁船沿着海岸划,童稚字體的片名出現畫面左下角,黃韻玲作曲的電子流行樂襯底,流瀉出主題曲〈小畢的故事〉的旋律。陳坤厚透過海潮起落聲,抒情的流行音樂,細膩的人物互動,建立畢媽媽和姐妹淘的女性情誼,和小畢的母子情,鋪墊接下來內景相親戲畢媽媽內心的委曲不安。小畢成長過程裏,黑板上學校老師寫下「光復」、「渡海」,呼應眷村記憶,兩岸關係與海洋經驗的連繫。

《看海的日子》片頭以紀錄片風格呈現宜蘭南方澳漁港工作與休息的庶民面貌,私娼寮的妓女招攬顧客,海水湧上岸。妓女白玫(陸小芬)搭乘火車回九份,意識流穿梭現在與過去,現實與記憶。她在火車上遇見昔日姐妹茵茵,茵茵已嫁給山東人魯少校,與《小畢的故事》同樣是外省軍人跟本地女子老少配的結合。行駛的火車「規律的沿途輕搖」,結合海洋意象,穿梭白玫與茵茵的現在與過去。白玫抱着茵茵八個月大的兒子看海:「海裏有好多好多的魚,有黃的魚,有紅的魚,大的就像火車,小的就像小拇指,魯延你看那裏有船耶,船在海裏抓魚,抓好多好多的魚給魯延吃,船在海裏搖啊搖,魯延也在搖啊搖。」白玫對魯延說的話富節奏感,近乎詩和音樂。有趣的是,魯延太小,聽不懂白玫阿姨的話,這些話可以理解為白玫的海洋想像,憧憬當中的自由、生命、活力。

討論台灣新浪潮的海洋想像,無法迴避張艾嘉主演的《海灘的一天》(1983)。電影採取海浪般一波一波閃回的複雜敘事結構,以懸疑包裝,講的卻是北一女、台大外文系畢業生林佳莉(張艾嘉)的成長故事。林佳莉透過收音機聽到貝多芬的《第三號鋼琴協奏曲》,與13年沒見的旅歐鋼琴家譚蔚青/青青(胡茵夢)久別重逢,兩人似乎有複雜難解的心結。楊德昌自由交織兩位女性的現在與過去,過去再過去,她們的記憶如潮水洶湧翻滾激動,觀眾逐漸拼湊出真相。真相為何已經不再重要,重要的是透過丈夫之死與海洋意象的連結,透過兩位女性合力回溯審視記憶,「小女孩成為完美的婦人」,鋼琴家也可以專心演出獨奏會。

文章最後,想討論侯孝賢最渾然天成的海洋電影《風櫃來的人》(1983),當中為人津津樂道,貫穿全片成長經驗的韋瓦第《四季》、片尾巴哈的《空氣》(《第三號管弦樂組曲》第二樂章《G弦之歌》),是楊德昌在電影下片後重新選擇配樂,取代李宗盛原本寫的青春流行曲〈風櫃來的人〉。透過古典音樂,楊德昌讓侯孝賢捕捉到的帶着鹽分鹹鹹的海風,更接近朱天文拿給侯看的《沈從文自傳》中「帶有距離、超然的文風」(James Udden)。在澎湖風櫃打架丟磚無所事事的不良少年,聽着風聲、海浪聲,騎行機車,偷溜進戲院想看「插片」(歐美情色片段),卻看見意大利導演維斯康堤英語配音中文字幕版的黑白藝術片《洛可兄弟》(謝世宗指出中文字幕寫的「鄉下佬進城」預示風櫃少年從鄉村到城市的軌跡,黃錦和、阿清與小杏的三角關係呼應西蒙、洛可、妓女娜迪亞的三角關係)。韋瓦第《四季》中《冬》第三樂章的冷冽空氣裏,朋友強行脫阿清(鈕承澤)的褲子,追逐嬉戲。四人在驚濤拍岸下手舞足蹈,鏡頭拉遠,始知在調戲楊金花。阿清、阿榮、郭仔因為打人,離家搭船來到高雄港。阿榮(張世)姊姊帶三人從高雄市區搭輪渡過海暫居旗津,介紹他們認識同樣來自澎湖的黃錦和(庹宗華)與家在基隆的小杏(林秀玲)。阿清透過收音機聆聽羅大佑首張專輯《之乎者也》(1982)中的〈鹿港小鎮〉:「鹿港的街道,鹿港的漁村,媽祖廟裏燒香的人們。/台北不是我的家,我的家鄉沒有霓虹燈⋯⋯」羅大佑震耳欲聾的音樂和歌詞提及的「漁村」連結了澎湖、高雄、基隆三港的人,更預示甚至提示小杏在片尾搭國光號前往不是她家的台北。《四季》中《春》第二樂章滲透葬禮前後阿清對父親的閃回記憶。黃錦和偷工廠貨被抓,出走跑船,船壞了在日本修理。阿清與小杏在黃上船後若有似無的感情,體現在冷靜的《冬》第三樂章的回返。《冬》淹沒他們在戲院看的香港功夫電影《醉拳》(袁和平,1978)中靜默的打鬥。他們的感情最終消逝在巴哈的《空氣》裏。侯孝賢的海洋想像,並非追求驚濤拍岸劇力萬鈞,而是透過海洋包容一切的廣袤、聲音、節奏、氣息、味道,連結澎湖、意大利、高雄、基隆、鹿港、日本、台北與香港,捕捉人與人之間難以言說的真實情感。

 

 

The Oceanic Imaginary in Taiwan New Cinema (Excerpts)

Written and translated by Timmy Chen

A movement often starts by chance, so does Taiwan New Wave Cinema.

All too often, critics discuss the beginnings of Taiwan New Wave in 1982-1983 in terms of its debt to the nativist literature (xiangtu wenxue) movement of the 1970s, especially to Huang Chunming’s novels. New Wave films such as The Sandwich Man (1983), A Flower in the Raining Night (1983), and I Love Mary (Ko I-cheng, 1984) were adapted from Huang’s 'native land' (xiangtu) short stories. (On the other hand, Lu Feiyi points out that more films were adapted from modernist literature.) Emilie Yeh contends that such cinematic nativist practice pluralises Taiwanese identities by incorporating 'the other' such as lower-class laborers, Mainlanders, and aborigines into the notion of 'native land’. Taking my cue from Yeh’s notion of nativism as non-exclusivist and non-fascist, I hope to open up the inadvertently enclosed cultural imaginary of native land, rootedness, and indigeneity (Subramani) by shifting toward the connective potentiality of 'Oceanic Taiwan’. Thus, I start with the literal sense of 'Taiwan New Wave' and explore its oceanic imaginary. The oceanic imaginary in Taiwan New Cinema both divides and connects Mainland China and Taiwan (continent vs. island), Hong Kong and Taiwan (island vs. island), Taiwan and the Pescadores [Penghu] islands and Quemoy [Kinmen] (center vs. periphery within an island nation). Situated in the China-Japan-US triangle, it extends to Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Taiwan New Wave’s oceanic imaginary resonates with the aesthetic of European film modernism. It drifts between past and present, between death and life, between memory, dream, and reality. It symbolises perils and hopes. Above all, it stages encounters and separations, drifting identities and shared destinies.

Growing Up (1983) as Xiao Bi’s coming-of-age story is set in the seascape of Tamsui, Taipei. The sound of waves attends the opening credits accompanied by the melody of Kay Huang’s synthesiser title song. Chen Kun-hou builds the female bonding between the two women and the mother-son relationship through the sound of waves, lyrical popular music, and the subtle yet silent interaction between characters. While Bi is learning at school, words like 'retrocession' and 'crossing the ocean' are written on the blackboard, inscribing the connection between the juancun or military compound memory, cross-Strait relationship, and oceanic experience.

Shot in documentary style, the opening of A Flower in the Raining Night presents the activities and downtime of Nan-fang-ao Fishing Harbor in Yilan. Prostitute Bai Mei (Lu Hsiao-fen) takes the train to Jiufen. Her stream of consciousness drifts between present and past, between reality and memory. Bai Mei bumps into her old-time friend Yin Yin on the train. Yin Yin has married a Major from Shandong province, a union between Mainlander soldier and local woman like the one in Growing Up. Bai sits on the rocking train with windows open to the seascape, her thoughts shuttling between present and past. Bai talks to Yin Yin’s eight-month-old boy in a rhythmic language akin to poetry and music. The boy is too young to understand her meaning so Bai’s poetry can be understood as her longing for freedom, life, and energy that constitute the oceanic imaginary.

That Day, on the Beach (1983), co-produced by CMPC and Cinema City, employs a wave-like complex narrative structure that involves flashback within flashback. Packaged as a tale of mystery and suspense, the film tells Lin Jia-li’s (Silvia Chang) coming-of-age story. Through listening to Beethoven’s Third Piano Concerto on the radio, Jia-li reunites with her professional pianist friend Ching-ching after 13 years of separation. Edward Yang freely interweaves both women’s present and past, and the past within the past. Their wave-like memories are stirred up for the audience to piece together what happened in their lives. In the denouement, however, the truth is no longer important. What matters is that both women collaborate to retrieve lost memories through the association of the 'death of husband' with oceanic imaginary. Jia-li has grown up to become a 'perfect woman' and Ching-ching can concentrate on her 'solo performance'.

Finally, I’d like to discuss Hou Hsiao-hsien’s most oceanic film The Boys from Fenggui (1983). Edward Yang rescored the film for Hou after its theatrical run, replacing Jonathan Lee’s pop title song with Vivaldi’s Four Seasons and Bach’s 'Air’. Through classical music, Yang makes the salty sea air Hou has captured closer to Shen Congwen’s 'distanced, detached perspective' (James Udden) as seen in Shen’s autobiography Chu Tien-wen lent Hou during shooting. The good-for-nothing boys from Fenggui, Penghu islands listen to the pulsing sound of wind and waves. They sneak into the theater to see 'erotic inserts’, but what awaits them is Italian director Visconti’s black-and-white Rocco and His Brothers (1960) dubbed in English with Chinese subtitles. (Elliot Hsieh points out the village-to-city trajectory in Visconti’s film prefigures the boys from Penghu migrating to Kaohsiung city and both films involve a triangle relationship.) To the freezing air of the third movement of Vivaldi’s 'The Winter' from Four Seasons, A-ching’s friends try to take off A-ching’s (Doze Niu Cheng-tse) pants. The four boys dance to the pulsing sound of waves. The camera pulls back to reveal they are actually teasing Yang Chin-hua. A-ching and A-jung migrate to Kaohsiung city because of a fight in Penghu. A-jung’s sister takes them to Cijin via ferry and introduces them to A-ho from Penghu and Peach from Keelung. A-ching listens to 'Lukang, the Little Town' (1982) from Lo Ta-yu’s debut album blaring out of the radio. Lo’s pop song played in loud volume and the lyrics’ reference to Lukang as 'a fishing village' connect the people from three ports (Penghu, Kaohsiung, and Keelung) and predict Peach’s taking the bus to Taipei to work, just like the narrator in Lo’s song. The second movement of Vivaldi’s 'Spring' permeates the flashback sequences of A-ching’s memory of his father before and after his funeral. A-ho is caught stealing goods from the factory and has to become a sailor. When his ship is broken, it is repaired in Japan. The ambiguous relationship between A-ching and Peach after A-ho’s departure is embodied by the return of the third movement of Vivaldi’s 'The Winter’. The indifferent nondiegetic music overwhelms a silenced fighting sequence in the Hong Kong kungfu film Drunken Master (Yuen Woo-ping, 1978) A-ching and Peach watch in the theater. Their relationship fades away in Bach’s 'Air.' Hou’s oceanic imaginary seeks to incorporate the expansiveness, sound, rhythm, air, and smell of the sea. It connects Penghu, Italy, Kaohsiung, Keelung, Lukang, Japan, Taipei, and Hong Kong while capturing the ineffable real feelings between human beings.