Anti-Archive

2014年1月由周戴維、陳史文及寧卡維成立,新成員朴成浩於2016年加入。旨於支援本地新一代或外國獨立導演,出品他們在柬埔寨拍攝的影片。在柬埔寨的歷史背景下,希望人們可以重新思考電影作品和創作人的之間關係。

A Cambodian film production company created in January 2014 by Davy Chou, Steve Chen, and Kavich Neang. In 2016 it welcomed its fourth partner, Park Sungho. Anti-Archive produces and co-produces fiction and documentary films by the emerging, new generation of Cambodian filmmakers, as well as films by international, independent directors shooting in Cambodia. Deliberately provocative, the name Anti-Archive invites one to rethink the relationship of films and filmmakers with the past and history.

文:龔秋曦

要了解柬埔寨的電影,仍是避不開談及其歷史脈絡。經歷被法國殖民、日本佔領,柬埔寨終於50年代初獨立,然而60年代末受越戰波及,國內政治勢力分裂,從此內戰連連。70年代初君主立憲被推翻,導致赤柬乘虛而入,利用原本國王的號召力贏得人民的支持,並於1975年4月佔領金邊。其後赤柬在國內進行大清洗,殘害和屠殺了近二百萬人,是當時國內人口的四分之一。

赤柬於90年代末正式解體,十多年來,柬國的政局與社會逐漸穩定,金邊亦慢慢發展成一個新興的城市。摩天大樓拔地而起,大量外地人湧來投資、發展事業。當地的電影業近年漸漸復甦,發行商都對這個市場眈眈逐逐。另一方面,不少國外的製作人會到此拍片,但當中不乏對東南亞的東方主義想像或消費。而本地的創作人,在沒有完善的配套下,多是以獨立的模式製作。Anti-Archive的創辦人周戴維和陳史文,2009年在金邊相遇,當時他們正各自開展自己的拍攝計劃。加上寧卡維,三人發現新一代電影製作人的困難與需求,在2014年成立了這間製作公司,希望支援一些新晉或有志投身製作的年輕人,把他們的作品帶到世界各地;也會幫助一些國外的獨立製作人在這裏拍攝。

今次選映的三部長片和三部短片,是Anti-Archive幾年間出品的項目,影片都關注柬埔寨的歷史脈絡與發展。《月漸盈滿》記錄首個紀念赤柬統治時期大屠殺雕塑的製作過程和爭議,探討藝術對於真正經歷過苦痛的人民之意義;《向左走向右走》及《他方是何方》分別都是關於年輕女性的故事,呈現新一代柬埔寨人面對城市發展中現代和傳統的矛盾;而短片集的三部短片就剛好講述幾個金邊小人物的過去、現在和未來。幾部影片都是Anti-Archive成員和其他年輕製作人合作的成果:駐外的成員為影片找到外來的資金、各人亦會負責其他成員影片的監製工作,又如寧卡維曾主演周戴維執導的《柬埔寨2099》、陳史文和道格拉斯曹互相為對方的長片擔任攝影指導等。他們對社會和歷史的重視、在限制中合力闖出新世界的遠志,希望能為本地製作人帶來可參考或借鏡的地方。

Written by Aki Kung, translated by Francisco Lo

In order to understand Cambodian cinema, one cannot avoid taking the country’s history into context. After colonisation by the French and occupation in the hands of the Japanese, Cambodia finally declared its independence in the early 1950s. As the turmoil of the Vietnam War spilled over the region in the late 1960s, the country’s political powers began to split, leading to a grueling period of civil war. Constitutional monarchy was overturned in the early 1970s as the Khmer Rouge rose to power by exploiting the king’s appeal for public support and occupied Phnom Penh in April of 1975. The Khmer Rouge was also responsible for the genocide of two millions of its own citizens, which was approximately a quarter of Cambodia’s population at the time.

The Khmer Rouge fell completely in the late 1990s. Cambodian society and its political situation gradually stabilised in the next decade or so. Meanwhile, Phnom Penh has become a burgeoning city where skyscrapers are sprouting and foreign capital is pouring in. Its film industry has also seen signs of recovery in recent years, as distributors set their sights on getting a piece of the market. On the other hand, many foreign filmmakers would come to shoot in Cambodia, though a good number of them are preoccupied with their orientalist view of Southeast Asia. Without adequate support, local filmmakers largely rely on making their films independently. Anti-Archive’s founders Davy Chou and Steve Chen met in Phnom Penh in 2009 while they were shooting their own respective projects. Together with Kavich Neang, the three recognised the needs of and difficulties faced by this generation of filmmakers. Hence they formed this production company, in hopes of assisting young and aspiring filmmakers, taking their films to the rest of the world. Besides, the company will also assist foreign independent filmmakers shooting in the country.

In this festival, we have selected three feature films and three short films released by Anti-Archive in recent years. They are all concerned with the history and development of Cambodia. Waxing Moon documents the making of a sculpture that is meant to be the first public memorial of the Khmer Rouge genocide, and the controversy that follows. It explores the meaning of art to the people who have lived through trauma and suffering. Turn Left Turn Right and DREAM LAND both feature stories of young women, depicting a new generation of Cambodians’ dilemma between modernity and tradition in the midst of urban development. As for the three short films, they precisely chronicle the past, present and future of several Phnom Penh characters. These films are the fruits of collaboration between the members of Anti-Archive and other young filmmakers—its overseas members find foreign funds for its projects while members will serve as producers for each other’s films. For example, Kavich Neang has acted in Davy Chou’s Cambodia 2099; Steve Chen and Douglas Seok is the director of cinematography for each other’s feature film. Their emphasis on society and history—with vision and determination to forge a path in a new world in spite of their limitation—can be seen as a reference or model for local filmmakers.